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源莲山 课件 w w
w.5 Y k J.Co m


unit 1 How can we become good learners?

1. 表示做某事的方法,by + 名词/代词/ doing , 对其划线提问用how
I study English by watching English movies.  How do you study English?
2. by +交通工具 ,对其划线提问,用how
I go to school by bike.     How do you go to school.
3. by+时间, 不迟于,在…之前
Please reply to my letter by Friday.
4. by 在…旁边    The teacher is standing by the window.
5. by在被动语态中,引出动作的执行者:The book is written by Lu Xun.

work with friends 和朋友一起学习  make word groups制作单词卡片 read the textbook读课本  ask sb for help 向某人求助  study for a test 为考试做准备  work with a group 参加小组学习   have conversations with sb 和某人交谈,沟通= talk with sb  read aloud朗读
practice doing sth练习做某事  what about doing sth干某事怎么样?  

speaking skills口语技能   spoken English 英语口语   finish doing sth完成干某事
give a report作报告  get the main ideas 理解主要意思   read word by word逐字阅读
try to do sth设法做某事   try doing sth尝试做某事  try one’s best to do sth尽某人最大努力做某事     be patient耐心点     be patient with sb 对某人有耐心(patient作为名词 病人)

find / make / think + it +adj (for sb)to do sth   发现/ 使/ 认为做某事对于某人来说是…的
it为形式宾语,真正的宾语是to do .  如:I find it difficult for me to learn English well.

the secret to …的秘密,…的秘诀   The secret to success is hard work.

most of the time大多数时候    be afraid of doing sth 害怕做某事  be afraid to do 不敢做某事    because of + 名词性短语    because + 句子   fall in love with sb/ sth爱上某人/某物

begin to do sth开始做某事   body language 肢体语言   the expressions on their faces他们脸上的表情    key words关键词 something interesting有趣的事情   look it / them up 查阅
It’s a piece of cake.小菜一碟     It serves you right. 你活该  so that= in order that以便,为了
have a better understanding of对…有更好的理解

as well也, 用于句末,不需要逗号隔开   I like English as well.
too 也,用于,需要逗号隔开    I like English , too.

take notes记笔记  do exercises 做练习  memorize sentence patterns 背句型
keep a diary= keep diaries写日记  increase my reading speed提高我的阅读速度
make mistakes 犯错   make mistakes in在某方面犯错  如:make mistakes in grammar

have a partner to practice English with   (介词with不可省略,与前面的partner存在逻辑上的动宾关系,如: a pen to write with,  a paper to write on ,  a house to live in)
be born with天生具有   be born in 出生在某地  如: I was born in Anhui.
the ability to learn学习的能力   the ability to do sth做某事的能力
depend on 取决于,依赖,依靠   learning habits 学习习惯  have…in common有共同之处

create an interest in 在某方面建立兴趣 如: create an interest in English
pay attention to 注意,关注 ;后接名词/代词/doing   (注意:to 为介词)

We should connect what we need to learn with something interesting.

get bored 变得厌烦,无聊  Use it or lose it 不用就作废   Practice makes perfect孰能生巧
even if = even though即使,尽管  keep doing sth持续做某事  
write down key words 写下关键词  draw mind maps画思维图  explain sth to sb 向某人解释
bit by bit一点点地=little by little    instead of doing sth代替做某事

Knowledge comes from questioning.知识来源于质疑。
Learning is a lifelong journey.学习是终身的旅行。
Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成。
No pains, no gains. 没有付出就没有回报。
An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 一天一苹果,医生远离我。
Time is money.时间就是金钱。
A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真情。
A good beginning is half done.好的开始是成功的一半。
Failure is the mother of success. 失败是成功之母。
When in Rome, do as Romans do. 入乡随俗。
The early bird catches the worm. 早起的鸟儿有虫吃。(笨鸟先飞)
Seeing is believing . 眼见为实。
Easier said than done.说起来容易做起来难。

unit 2 I think that mooncakes are delicious.
宾语从句:三要素 1.连接词  2. 语序: 陈述句语序  3:时态
1. 连接词 :
a. 当宾语从句是陈述句时,用that 引导,that在口语中常省略
  I think (that) he will return in an hour.
 注意: that在下列情况中不能被省略 :从句的主语就是that, 连接词that 不可省略
b. 当宾语从句为一般疑问句时, 用whether/ if 连接, 语序用陈述句
 I wonder if they’ll have the races next year.
  注意:if 和whether 可互换,但是在有些情况下只能用whether
     ①当从句里有or not时,只能用whether: I don’t know whether they’ll come or not.
     ②动词不定式前只用whether: He doesn’t know whether to go.
  ③介词后通常用whether: It depends on whether it rains.
  ④从句前置,用whether:  Whether he will come to the party , I don’t know.
 Could you please tell me how I can get to the post office?
2. 语序:宾语从句的语序必须为陈述句语序
3. 时态:a. 当主句为一般现在时,从句的时态根据实际情况而定,如:
        I think that he went to Shanghai yesterday.  /  I think that he will go to Shanghai.
      b.当主句为过去时, 从句要使用相应的过去时态,如:
        He wondered what you were doing.
      c. 当从句表达的内容是真理,自然规律,客观事实,名人名言,不受主句时态的影响,永远都用一般现在时,如:The teacher told us that the earth goes around the sun./  He told me that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

visit relatives 拜访亲戚   eat out出去吃,下馆子  put on five pounds长了5磅肉
put on weight 增肥  lose weight减肥  put on 穿衣服的动作  put on 上演,表演
guess what? 你猜怎么着? be similar to和…相似  throw water at each other互相泼水
wash away冲走   in the new year在新的一年里 

have been doing 现在完成进行时,表示动作从过去延续到现在,并且还可能继续延续下去
I have been learning English for 5 years.

be in the shape of呈…的形状 full moon 满月   on mid-autumn night在中秋之夜(具体到某天上午、下午、晚上用on)  carry people’s wishes寄托着人们的祝愿   miss doing sth错过做某事   traditional folk stories传统的民间故事   shoot down射下,击落 
whoever无论谁=no matter who   live forever长生不老   plan to do sth计划做某事

steal---stole ---stolen  steal…from从…偷    refuse to do sth拒绝做某事  
fly up to the moon 飞向月球  call out one’s name大声呼喊某人的名字  lay out摆开,布置
the tradition of…的传统   admire the moon赏月   admire sb for sth因为某事而仰慕某人
share sth with sb和某人分享某物    as a result因此,结果    take the medicine吃药

the most touching 最令人感动的( touching 修饰物=moving,  touched修饰人=moved)

lie :动词,躺,存在,位于 lie----lay----lain-----lying       撒谎  lie-----lied---lied-----lying
lie:名词,tell a lie / tell lies撒谎
lay:动词,下蛋,产卵   lay---laid---laid---laying

What fun the Water Festival is!   What fun it is !

one…the other (一个…另一个…)     instead of doing 代替做某事  
on the second Sunday of May 在五月的第二个星期天  dress up as a ghost装扮成鬼

trick or treat不给糖就捣蛋   play a trick on sb/play tricks on sb 对某人恶作剧,开某人的玩笑
treat :动词,礼待,对待 
treat….as… 把某人看作、视为  Don’t treat me as a fool. 别把我当傻子。

the true meaning of Christmas圣诞节的真谛  think of 想起,认为,考虑

But behind all these things lies the true meaning of Christmas.这是一个倒装句,正常的语序应该是:The true meaning of Christmas lies behind all these things.

the importance of doing sth 做某事的重要性  make more money挣跟多的钱

a famous short novel written by Charles Dickens 一个由查尔斯狄更斯写的著名短篇小说
written 过去分词作后置定语,修饰novel , 含有被动的意思。
I like the novels written by Lu Xun.

mean :动词,意思,打算,意味 ,What do you mean?
       形容词,吝啬的,刻薄的 , Don’t be so mean to me.

He just cares about whether he can make more money. 这里的whether不可以换成if, 因为前面有介词about, 只能用whether.

punish:动词,惩罚, 名词是punishment
punish sb for sth 因为某事而惩罚某人 His father punished him for telling a lie.
be punished被惩罚,被动语态

warn sb to to sth警告某人去做某事 My teacher warned me to arrive at school on time.
warn sb not to do sth警告某人不要做某事 He warned me not to play computer games.
warn sb about/ of sth提醒、告诫某人某事 He warned me about the rainstorm.
warn sb against doing sth告诫某人提防,警告某人不要 He warned me against going out alone.

dead 形容词,死去的,死亡的  die 动词,死亡   death 名词 死亡

used to do sth 过去常做某事   be used to doing sth 习惯做某事
be used to do sth被用来做某事= be used for doing sth

end up 最后成为,最终处于
end up with 以…结束 The party ended up with a song.  (反义短语begin with)
end up doing sth以做某事结束  The party ended up singing an English song.

expect sb to do sth期待某人去做某事  take sb back to 把某人带回
remind sb to do sth提醒某人去做某事   remind sb of sth使某人想起某事

wake up 醒来  decide to do sth决定做某事   promise to do sth承诺去做某事
people in need 需要帮助的人  treat everyone with kindness and warmth在这善良和温暖对待每个人     spread 传播,蔓延  spread ---spread---spread

give birth to 生产,产仔,养育  His sister gave birth to a baby girl.
give out 分发   put off推迟,延期   put out 熄灭,灭火   put away把…收起来


unit 3 Could you please tell me where the restrooms are?
1. Where is the post office?
2. Is there a post office near here?
3. How can I get to the post office?
4. Could you tell me the way to the post office?
5. Could you tell me where the post office is ?
6. Could you tell me if/ whether there is a post office near here?
7. Could you tell me how I can get to the post office?
8. Could you tell me how to get to the post office?
Go along / down,   Walk along/ down 沿着
Turn right/ left at the second crossing =Take the second turning on the right/ left.
Go across the bridge过桥  Go across the street过马路
go past = pass 路过  on your right在你的右边 on your left在你的左边
between …and…在…和…之间     across from在…的对面   next to 紧挨着
in front of 在…的前面 

beside the bank 在银行的旁边 
beside & besides : beside在…的旁边    besides除…之外还有
All the students go to the party besides Tom. 除了Tom之外还有所有学生都去了聚会(Tom也去了)
All the students go to the party except Tom. 除了Tom之外所有学生都去了聚会(Tom没去)

save money存钱  get some money取点钱   get some magazines 买些杂志
get a newspaper买一份报纸  go to the second floor去二楼  on the third floor在三楼
go past 路过  (past是介词,超过)= pass
pass 动词 1.路过 2.通过考试 pass the exam  3.传递 pass sb sth = pass sth to sb

pardon?= pardon me?= beg you pardon? 没听清别人的话,希望对方再说一遍

rush hour交通的高峰期  in a rush匆匆忙忙,仓促地,匆忙地
rush to do sth匆忙地去做某事

come on 快点,加油,别这样,得了吧  hold my hand抓住我的手

Shouting did help.     do, does, did在动词原形前,起强调作用,表达强烈的情感
I did go to the movies yesterday. 我昨天晚上确实看电影去了。
She does speak English well.  她英语说的确实很好。
suggest :动词,建议  , suggest doing sth建议做某事  He suggested playing basketball.
       名词,suggestion, 可数名词,复数是suggestions
advise :动词,建议, advise sb to do sth建议某人去做某事   advise doing sth建议做某事
advise sb not to do sth 建议某人不要做某事
      名词,advice, 不可数名词, a piece of advice

on one’s way to 在某人去某地的路上  by the way顺便说一下 in the way阻碍
pass by路过   Uncle Bob’s = Uncle Bob’s restaurant
at the doctor’s在医生的诊所   at my aunt’s 在我阿姨的家里

walk up to 走向…   staff 职工,管理人员,是集合名词,没有复数,强调整体时,谓语用三单形式,强调成员是,谓语用复数形式。

表示各国的人的单复数:1.单复数同形的:Chinese----Chinese , Japanese-----Japanese
                      2. man-----men:  Frenchman---Frenchmen, Englishman---Englishmen
                      3. 直接+s: German-----Germans,  Italian---Italians, Asian---Asians

mail a letter寄一封信  tell sb to do sth 告诉某人去做某事  in the corner of 在…的角落里
at/ on the corner of 在…的拐角处

fascinating 迷人的 ,修饰物, fascinated修饰人
inexpensive 不贵的---------expensive昂贵的

主语不能为人 ,表达某人方便的时候it is convenient for sb

ask for help politely有礼貌的寻求帮助   the similar requests for directions有关方向的相似请求
request,动词,请求,要求  request sb to do sth要求某人去做某事
                          request sth from sb向某人要求某物
        名词,请求,要求   make a request= make requests 发出请求

correct ,形容词,正确的=right, 副词形式为correctly :  ask a question correctly 真确地问问题
动词,纠正,改正 :Please correct the mistakes in your homework.请纠正作业里的错误

the way they speak他们说话的方式   in different situations在不同的情况下

who 通常作主语:  Who can help him?
whom通常作宾语: Whom / Who is he talking to? (这种情况下两者都可用)
                但是:To whom is he talking? (这种情况下只能用whom)
sound much more polite听起来更有礼貌的多了  lead into引入,导入
include: 包括,including,介词,including Tom  ;
              included, 形容词, Tom included.
an underground parking lot地下停车场  look forward to doing sth期待、盼望做某事

spend: 人作主语,spend …in doing   spend…on
cost :物作主语
pay: 人作主语,常与for连用
take:  it takes sb some time to do sth

reply & answer:
动词: reply to sb /  answer sb
名词: the reply to = the answer to

thank sb for doing sth     for the first time第一次

unit 4 I used to be afraid of the dark.
used to do sth 过去常常做某事,暗示现在已经不做
I used to play basketball after school. (暗示现在已经不打了)
否定句: I didn’t use to play basketball after school. /  I usedn’t to play basketball after school.
一般疑问:Did you use to play basketball after school?  Yes , I did.  No , I didn’t.
Used you to play basketball after school?   Yes, I used to.   No, I usedn’t.
be used to doing sth习惯做某事    be used to do sth= be used for doing sth被用来做某事

What does he like? 他喜欢什么?   What be sb like? 询问人的品德、相貌,更侧重个性特征
What does sb look like? 他长什么样子?

keep silent= keep quiet 保持安静  from time to time时常,偶尔= sometimes= at times
on a swim team 在游泳队,是游泳队的成员   such a great idea=  so great a idea
get good scores on the exams 在考试中得到好分数   see sb doing sth看见某人正做某事
turn red 变红(表示颜色的变化用turn:  The leaves turn green in spring.)

interview: 动词interview sb 采访某人(interviewer 名词,采访者interviewee被采访者)
         名词, 采访,面试  I have an interview tomorrow morning.
a 19- year- old Asian pop star (加了连字符,名词用单数,注意当数字为8,11,18,80,用an )

take up: 学着做,开始从事 
take up doing sth  开始从事做某事 He took up painting when  he was a child.
占据,占用(时间空间) The table takes up too much room.

deal with :应付,处理= do with , 区别是 deal with 与how 搭配, do with 与what搭配

dare:敢于,胆敢,实义动词,dare to do sth   如: He dared to ride a bike at the age of 4.
    情态动词,常用于否定、疑问句  How dare you speak to me like this?
                                  He daren’t tell me the truth.
not …anymore= no more 不再(次数不再增加)
I will not copy homework anymore.= I will no more copy homework.
not …any longer= no more 不再(时间不再延长)
You are not a child any longer.= You are no longer a child.

be famous for 因…而著名    be famous as作为…而著名
all the time 一直,始终   get tons of attention得到大量的关注   worry about= be worried about 为…而担心  private time 私人时间   hang out with friends 和朋友闲逛 
the road to success成功之路  give up doing sth 放弃做某事  fight on 继续奋斗

tons of 许多的,大量的,既可以接可数名词复数,也可接不可数名词,是夸张的表达

too much 修饰不可数名词, much too 修饰形容词, too many修饰可数名词复数

be prepared to do sth被准备好做某事,愿意做某事
require: 动词,需要,要求-----------requirement名词
require sb to do sth要求某人去做某事 The boss required his workers to work nice hours a day.
require doing sth 需要被做= require to be done
My car requires washing.=  My car requires to be washed.

a number of = many 许多 ,number前可用big, great, large, small修饰,后面用名词复数,谓语也用复数
the number of …的数字  ,后面的名词用复数,谓语用三单形式,主语是number
The number of students is 300 in our school. A number of them are boys.

read books on European history 读有关欧洲历史的书
read books on African culture读有关非洲文化的书
British English 英式英语    American English 美式英语 
give a speech in public在公共场所作演讲  be nervous about+名词/代词/ doing 对…感到紧张

an ant一只蚂蚁   wear glasses戴眼镜  do well in = be good at
have difficulty / trouble/ problems in doing sth在做某事上有困难/麻烦/问题
cause problems惹麻烦   take care of = look after照顾,照料

happy---- unhappy 形容词
happiness------unhappiness 名词

influence :动词,影响  influence sb  如:His novels influenced the lives of young people.
         名词,影响  have an influence on sb 对…产生影响
                    Family education has an important influence on children.

absent :形容词,缺席的,不在的,常与介词from连用, be absent from
       My brother was absent from the meeting yesterday.
       名词是absence   The teacher was angry at his absence.
present:形容词,出席的,在场的 ,是absent的反义词
        形容词,现在的  at present = now现在

become less interested in 变得不那么感兴趣   be absent from classes逃课
fail the examinations考试不及格

fail :动词,失败 (反义词succeed)  failure 名词(反义词success)
   未能做某事 fail to do sth未能做某事 I failed to pass the driving test.他未能通过驾照考试。
   不及格 (反义词pass)He failed the exam.

make the decision to do sth= decide to do sth决定做某事  in person亲身,亲自
take a 24-hour train坐24小时的火车  even though即使,尽管be there for sb陪在某人身边
take an active part in积极参加   take pride in = be proud of为…感到自豪,骄傲

advise sb to do sth建议某人去做某事   advise doing sth = suggest doing sth建议做某事
advise sb not to do sth = advise sb against doing sth

find sth +adj发现某事是…的  I find English difficult. 我发现英语很难。
have much more communication with sb和某人有更多的交流

in the last few years= in the past few years 在过去的几年里,常用语现在完成时
the biggest change in my life我生活中最大的变化    a general self-introduction总的自我介绍

be required to do sth被要求做某事

unit 5 What are the shirts made of?
一般现在时: am/ is / are + done
一般过去时: was / were + done
一般将来时: will / be going to be + done
现在完成时: have/ has been + done
现在进行时: am / is / are being + done
过去进行时: was / were being +done
含有情态动词的: can / should/ must / may be + done

1. 只有及物动词才有被动语态,不及物动词后面不能直接跟宾语,那么变成被动语态就会没有主语。(happen不及物动词)
2. 表示状态的词没有被动语态(have)
3. 系动词没有被动语态,其中感官动词可以用主动表示被动
The music sounds beautiful.
还有一些动词和well 等副词连用时,用主动表示被动,比如:sell, wash, read等
The book sells well, and it is sold out.
4. 一些动词短语没有被动语态,belong to, break out
5. to do 作宾补,在主动语态里省略to的,在被动语态里必须把to还原
have sb do, make sb do, see sb do, hear sb do, watch sb do
The teacher makes us clean classroom every day.------
We are made to clean classroom by the teacher every day.
6. 一些动词后跟doing, 可以表示被动  , need / want / require doing  , be worth doing sth
My car requires washing. = My car requires to be washed.

be made of 由…制成(看出原材料)   be made from 由…制成 (看不出原材料)
be made into +制成品 被制成       be made in +地点 在某地被制成
be made by + 制作人   被…所制成    be made up of 有…组成

glass  玻璃  不可数名词
     玻璃杯  可数名词    a glass of water,  2 glasses of water
     眼睛    复数名词    glasses ,  sunglasses

the art and science fair 艺术和科学展览会   environmental protection环境保护
be famous for = be known for因为…而闻名  be famous as = be known as作为…而闻名
be known to +出名的范围  为…所熟知
be well known for = be very famous as 因为…而非常有名

produce & make
produce 生产,制造,也可以表示生产粮食,种植蔬菜
make 生产,制造= produce, 但是不能表示通过种植而获得产品
The factory produces / makes 200 cars every day.
They produces rice and wheat.

as far as I know 据我所知  on the sides of the mountains在山坡上  by hand手工地,亲手地
all over the world= around the world全世界   be good for对…有好处

France法国  French法国的,法语  Frenchman法国人 ,复数是Frenchmen
in the local shops在当地的商店里  avoid doing sth避免做某事   be good at doing sth擅长做
某事  high-technology products 高科技产品   in all parts of the world 在世界各地

no matter what意为“无论什么”,引导 让步状语从句,相当于whatever
与no matter what用法类似的还有:
 no matter who = whoever 无论谁
   no matter when = whenever 无论什么时候     
   no matter where = wherever 无论在哪儿
No matter where /Wherever you go, don’t forget your hometown.
every day & everyday
every day 每一天 ,表示频率
everyday 日常的,每天的,形容词  everyday life 日常生活,  everyday English 日常英语

traffic accidents交通事故  
process 动词,加工,处理  The factory processed leather last year.这个工厂去年加工皮革。
       名词, 过程 , the teaching process教学过程

at the festival在节日上   fly a kite= fly kites放风筝 international kite festival国际风筝节
compete 竞赛,比赛,动词  compete with sb 和某人竞争= compete against sb
compete for sth 为…而竞争 
competitor竞争者,参赛者 ,名词   competition 竞争,竞赛,名词

paint 动词 ,用颜料画,绘画 He is fond of painting.
            用油漆刷 I want to paint the door yellow.

each & every
1.each 两个或两个以上的每一个,every 三个或三个以上的每一个
2.each强调个体, every强调整体
3.each可以和of连用,every不可以,each of+名词复数+谓语动词的三单形式,主语是each.
   Each of us has a dictionary.

own  自己的,形容词  one’s own +n = n+ of one’s own
This is my own pen.= This is a pen of my own.
     on one’s own独自,独立 Do your homework by your homework.
     动词 ,拥有  He owns a big company.--------owner名词,主人

form 名词,形式,类型   the form of …的形式 the forms of traditional art 传统艺术形式
     名词,表格   Fill in the form first. 先填表
     动词,形成,构成 ,培养  You should form a good habit of learning.

turn …into 变成   Ice can turn into water.
be turned into 被变成  The bed can be turned into a sofa.

object of beauty 美的物体   according to根据  rise into the air 升入空中  be folded被折叠
be cut with scissors被剪刀剪   be carefully shaped被小心地塑形   be polished and painted

be covered with 被…覆盖   The mountain is covered with snow all year round.
at a high heat在高温下  it takes sb some time to do sth
complete 动词,完成
        形容词,完整的 Your answer is not complete.
completely 副词,完全地,彻底地
be lit被点燃 lit原形是light
light 可数名词,灯   turn off the lights 关灯
    不可数名词,光线    The sun sends out light and heat.
    动词,点燃 (过去式lighted/ lit; 过去分词lighted/ lit)He lit a cigarette.他点了一支烟。
    形容词,浅的,淡的,修饰颜色  light blue淡蓝色  ,反义词dark blue 深蓝色

send out发出(光,热, 声音,信号),放出 ,代词放中间,用宾格
The sun sends out light and heat.

see…as = regard…as = consider…as 把…看作
They see me as their good friend. = They regard me as their good friend.= They consider me as
their good friend.
be seen as 被看作  I am seen as their good friend by them.

scissors 剪刀,复数名词,表达数量需要用量词,a pair of scissors一把剪刀,加上量词后,谓语动词的形式根据量词来定   This pair of scissors is expensive.

lively 形容词,生气勃勃的,活泼的,颜色鲜艳的,修饰人或物 She is a lively person.
living形容词,活着的,健在的,常作定语,放在名词之前, living things生物
alive形容词,活着的 ,常作表语,The fish is still alive.

fire 名词,火
    动词,烘烤  They are fired at a very high heat.他们在非常高的温度下被烘烤。
    开火 Don’t fire.
    解雇, 炒鱿鱼 You are fired. 你被炒鱿鱼了。

be used for doing sth = be used to do sth被用来做某事

unit 6 When was it invented?
change the style of the shoes 改变鞋子的风格  in style时尚的,时髦的  out of style过时的

an invention 一项发明  an inventor一个发明家 

with pleasure 我很乐意 , 相当于all right ,用于答应别人的请求,在帮助别人之前使用
It’s a pleasure. = It’s my pleasure. = My pleasure. 我的荣幸,不客气,用于帮助别人之后回答

such a great invention如此伟大的发明  in our daily lives在我们的日常生活中 
seem to do sth似乎要做某事  have a point有道理  do ,does , did在动词原形前,起强调作
用   the pioneers of different inventions 不同发明的先驱  wasn’t used widely没有被广泛使

mention 动词,提到,说到 ,后面可以接名词、代词、doing、从句
Why did you mention it?  / He didn’t mention his brother to me.
I mentioned playing basketball just now and he agre

list 动词,列举 List ten of your favorite songs.列出你最喜欢的十首歌曲。be listed被列举
   名词,清单,列表  shopping list购物清单   make a list制作清单

pleasant 形容词,令人愉快的,常作定语,修饰物
pleased形容词, 使人感到高兴,满意 ,主语为人 be pleased to do sth很高兴做某事
                                              be pleased with对…满意
pleasing形容词,常作表语 The trip is pleasing.

by accident 意外地  I hurt my leg by accident.
          偶然地 = by chance  I found my purse by accident/ by chance in the library.

it is said that + 句子  据说     It is said that he is the best student in our school.
it is reported that+句子  据报道   It is reported that it will rain tomorrow.
It is believed that 据认为,人们认为
It is known that 众所周知

a Chinese ruler called Shen Nong 一个叫做神农的中国统治者  drinking water 饮用水
over an open fire 在室外的火上  fall into 落入  fall down 倒塌,摔倒 fall off从…摔倒
fall down from = fall off 从…摔倒  fall behind落后  fall asleep睡着 

some time一段时间  some times几次,几倍  sometimes有时候  sometime将来某时候

one of +名词复数做主语,谓语从此用三单,因为主语是One

in less than 100 years在不到100年的时间里   the popularity of tea 茶的普及 
an accidental invention一次偶然的发明

take place & happen
happen 表示偶然的发生,不可预见
take place 表示历史事件,会议的发生和变化的发生 ,含有事先预料、计划之意(无被动语态)   Great changes have taken place in my hometown.

in the 19th century 在19世纪  national drink 国饮   the finest tea leaves 最好的茶叶
not…until…直到…才…   a few thousand years later几千年后  tea trade 茶的贸易
without doubt毫无疑问

doubt 不管是名词还是动词,在肯定句中,后面用whether/ if连接
     I doubt whether / if he will come here.
     在否定或疑问句中, 用that连接
     There is no doubt that we will win the game.

at a low price以很低的价格 (价格的高低用high, low修饰)
translate…into…把…翻译成  Please translate this sentence into English.

lock 动词 锁上,锁住  The door is locked.
名词,锁   Open the lock. 打开锁

all of a sudden = suddenly 突然  The earthquake happened all of a sudden.

by mistake 错误地,无意中  I took your umbrella by mistake. 我误拿了你的雨伞。
in the end = at last = finally 最后    at the end of 在…的末尾  change …into ..把…变成

much- loved 备受喜爱的   over = more than 超过  on a hard floor在硬的地板上
be asked to do sth被要求做某事  in the other team’s basket在另一个队伍的篮子里
on the same team在同一个队伍里    at the same team在同一个队伍里
the competing team竞争队伍  see sb doing sth

divide …into.. 被…划分成  The teacher divided the whole class into 4 groups.
be divided into 被划分成  The cake was divided into 4 pieces by him.
divide up 分配  We divided up the money equally. 我们平均分配了前
divide…from…把…与…分开  The English Channel divides England from France.

stop …from doing sth 阻止…做某事  We must stop him from playing computer games.
stop to do sth停下来去做另一件事  stop doing sth停止做某事
can’t stop doing sth= can’t help doing sth 忍不住做某事,情不自禁做某事

dream of doing sth梦想做某事   He dreams of becoming a scientist.他梦想成为一名科学家。
not only … but also连接两个名词作主语,注意就近原则
Not only you but also he is right.

the number of …的数量 ,后接名词复数,谓语动词用三单形式,因为number是主语
a number of = many 许多,大量,谓语用复数

look up to 仰慕,钦佩  I look up to my grandpa.

hero 复数 heroes 
encourage sb to do sth鼓励某人去做某事  achieve one’s dream = realize one’s dream = make one’s dream come true实现某人的梦想

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